Bio-X Affiliated Faculty

Dr. Shafer's group research is on the mechanisms and consequences of virus evolution with a focus on HIV therapy and drug resistance. They maintain a public HIV drug resistance database ( as a resource for HIV drug resistance surveillance, interpreting HIV drug resistance tests, and HIV drug development. These three disciplines – epidemiology, clinical management, and basic science – reflect the interdisciplinary nature of antiviral drug resistance research and represent the range of their group’s activities.